Scientific Explanation Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy

Scientific Explanation - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

May 09, 2003 . Issues concerning scientific explanation have been a focus of philosophical attention from Pre-Socratic times through the modern period. However, modern discussion really begins with the development of the Deductive-Nomological (DN) model.This model has had many advocates (including Popper 1959, Braithwaite 1953, Gardiner, 1959, Nagel 1961) but ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-explanation/.

Scientific Discovery - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Mar 06, 2014 . The argument is that scientific discovery became a problem for philosophy of science in the 19 th century, when consequentialist theories of scientific method became more widespread. When consequentialist theories were on the rise, the two processes of conception and validation of an idea or hypothesis became distinct, and the view that the ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-discovery/.

Bertrand Russell - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Dec 07, 1995 . Russell's philosophical method has at its core the making and testing of hypotheses through the weighing of evidence. Hence Russell's comment that he wished to emphasize the "scientific method" in philosophy. His method also requires the rigorous analysis of problematic propositions using the machinery of first-order logic..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/russell/.

Scientific Revolutions - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Mar 05, 2009 . The topic of scientific revolutions has been philosophically important since Thomas Kuhn's account in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962, 1970). Kuhn's death in 1996 and the fiftieth anniversary of Structure in 2012 have renewed attention to the issues raised by his work. It is controversial whether or not there have been any revolutions in the strictly ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-revolutions/.

Teleological Arguments for God’s Existence - Stanford Encyclopedia ….

Jun 10, 2005 . 1. Introduction. It is not uncommon for humans to find themselves with the intuition that random, unplanned, unexplained accident just couldn't produce the order, beauty, elegance, and seeming purpose that we experience in the natural world around us. As Hume's interlocutor Cleanthes put it, we seem to see "the image of mind reflected on us from innumerable objects" ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/.

Rationalism vs. Empiricism - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Aug 19, 2004 . The best explanation of our knowledge is that we gain it by intuition and deduction. Leibniz mentions logic, metaphysics, and morals as other areas in which our knowledge similarly outstrips what experience can provide. Judgments in logic and metaphysics involve forms of necessity beyond what experience can support. ... The Stanford ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rationalism-empiricism/.

Galileo Galilei - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Mar 04, 2005 . Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) has always played a key role in any history of science, as well as many histories of philosophy. He is a--if not the--central figure of the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century.His work in physics (or "natural philosophy"), astronomy, and the methodology of science still evoke debate after more than 400 years..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/galileo/.

Belief (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Aug 14, 2006 . The defense of physicalism was one of the driving forces in philosophy of mind in the period during which the most influential approaches to belief in contemporary analytic philosophy of mind were developed--the 1960s through the 1980s--and it was one of the principal reasons philosophers were interested in accounts of propositional attitudes ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/belief/.

Naturalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Feb 22, 2007 . 1. Ontological Naturalism 1.1 Making a Causal Difference. A central thought in ontological naturalism is that all spatiotemporal entities must be identical to or metaphysically constituted by physical [] entities. Many ontological naturalists thus adopt a physicalist attitude to mental, biological, social and other such "special" subject matters..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/naturalism/.

Descartes’ Method - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Jun 03, 2020 . 1. The Origins and Definition of Descartes' Method. The origins of Descartes' method are coeval with his initiation into a radical form of natural philosophy based on the combination of mechanics, physics, and mathematics, a combination Aristotle proscribed and that remained more or less absent in the history of science before the seventeenth century (on the ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-method/.

Mill’s Moral and Political Philosophy - Stanford Encyclopedia of ....

Oct 09, 2007 . State intervention and regulation, Mill thinks, is the best solution to this collective action problem. He also thinks that there are other goods for which market provision will lead to underproduction, presumably because of positive externalities, which is why he thinks that the state should subsidize scientific research and the arts (PPE V.xi ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill-moral-political/.

Arthur Schopenhauer - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

May 12, 2003 . Arthur Schopenhauer was among the first 19 th century philosophers to contend that at its core, the universe is not a rational place. Inspired by Plato and Kant, both of whom regarded the world as being more amenable to reason, Schopenhauer developed their philosophies into an instinct-recognizing and ultimately ascetic outlook, emphasizing that in the ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/schopenhauer/.

Scientific Reduction - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Apr 08, 2014 . Most proponents of a mechanistic turn in the philosophy of explanation oppose a number of mainstream interpretations of core notions in the philosophy of science, especially that of a scientific explanation, a law, the layer-cake model of a hierarchy of sciences (Wimsatt 1976), and the notion of a theory..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-reduction/.

Philosophy of Mathematics - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Sep 25, 2007 . The general philosophical and scientific outlook in the nineteenth century tended toward the empirical: platonistic aspects of rationalistic theories of mathematics were rapidly losing support. ... the evolution of mathematical theories, and mathematical explanation and understanding have become more prominent, and have been related to more ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/philosophy-mathematics/.

Aristotle’s Rhetoric - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

May 02, 2002 . Aristotle's Rhetoric has had an unparalleled influence on the development of the art of rhetoric. In addition to Aristotle's disciples and followers, the so-called Peripatetic philosophers (see Fortenbaugh/Mirhady 1994), famous Roman teachers of rhetoric, such as Cicero and Quintilian, frequently used elements stemming from Aristotle's rhetorical theory..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-rhetoric/.

Scientific Method - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Nov 13, 2015 . Instead, they adhered to a symmetry thesis on which any causal explanation of how scientific knowledge is established needs to be symmetrical in explaining truth and falsity, rationality and irrationality, success and mistakes, by the same causal factors (see, e.g., Barnes and Bloor 1982, Bloor 1991). ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-method/.

Intentionality (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Aug 07, 2003 . 'Intentionality' is a philosopher's word: ever since it was introduced into philosophy by Franz Brentano in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, it has been used to refer to the puzzles of representation, all of which lie at the interface between the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/intentionality/.

John Stuart Mill - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Aug 25, 2016 . Bibliography Primary Sources. All citations of Mill are taken from The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, edited by John M. Robson (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963-91), in 33 volumes, and are given by volume and page.. Secondary Sources. Bain, C., 1904, Autobiography, London: Longmans, Green and Co. ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill/.

Seneca (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Oct 17, 2007 . 1. Life and Works. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (c. 1 BCE - CE 65) was born in Corduba (Spain) and educated--in rhetoric and philosophy--in Rome. Seneca had a highly successful, and quite dramatic, political career..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/seneca/.

Emotion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Sep 25, 2018 . This is why we have made an effort to pay significant attention to scientific developments, as we are convinced that cross-disciplinary fertilization is our best chance for making progress in emotion theory. ... definitions are often designed to promote measurement and experimentation for the purposes of prediction and explanation in a specific ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/emotion/.

Donald Davidson - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

May 29, 1996 . After starting graduate work in classical philosophy (completing a Master's degree in 1941), Davidson's studies were interrupted by service with the US Navy in the Mediterranean from 1942-45. He continued work in classical philosophy after the war, graduating from Harvard in 1949 with a dissertation on Plato's 'Philebus' (1990b)..

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/davidson/.

John Rawls - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Mar 25, 2008 . John Rawls (b. 1921, d. 2002) was an American political philosopher in the liberal tradition. His theory of justice as fairness describes a society of free citizens holding equal basic rights and cooperating within an egalitarian economic system. His theory of political liberalism explores the legitimate use of political power in a democracy, and envisions how civic unity ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rawls/.

Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (Stanford Encyclopedia ....

May 03, 2002 . 1. The Background. In 1900 Max Planck discovered that the radiation spectrum of black bodies occurs only with discrete energies separated by the value h?, where ? is the frequency and h is a new constant, the so-called Planck constant. According to classical physics, the intensity of this continuous radiation would grow unlimitedly with growing frequencies, ....

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm-copenhagen/.