Dna Sequencing Wikipedia

Sequencing - Wikipedia.

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment. So far, most DNA sequencing has been performed using the chain termination method developed by Frederick Sanger.This technique uses sequence-specific termination of a DNA synthesis reaction using modified nucleotide substrates..


Family Tree DNA - Wikipedia.

FamilyTreeDNA is a division of Gene by Gene, a commercial genetic testing company based in Houston, Texas.FamilyTreeDNA offers analysis of autosomal DNA, Y-DNA, and mitochondrial DNA to individuals for genealogical purpose. With a database of more than two million records, it is the most popular company worldwide for Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA, and the fourth ....


DNA microarray - Wikipedia.

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10 -12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as ....


DNA–DNA hybridization - Wikipedia.

Critics argue that the technique is inaccurate for comparison of closely related species, as any attempt to measure differences between orthologous sequences between organisms is overwhelmed by the hybridization of paralogous sequences within an organism's genome. [better source needed] [better source needed] DNA sequencing and computational comparisons of ....


DNA sequencer - Wikipedia.

A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (), C (), A and T ().This is then reported as a text string, called a read.Some DNA sequencers can be also considered optical instruments as they analyze light signals originating from ....


Sequenciamento de DNA – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

O sequenciamento de DNA (portugues brasileiro) ou sequenciacao de ADN (portugues europeu) e uma serie de metodos de biologia molecular que tem como finalidade determinar a ordem das bases nitrogenadas adenina (A), guanina (G), citosina (C) e timina (T) da molecula de DNA ou ADN . A montagem do genoma e feito atraves da uniao de um grande numero de ....


Streptococcus pneumoniae - Wikipedia.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, spherical bacteria, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), aerotolerant anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. They are usually found in pairs and do not form spores and are non motile.As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was ....


Shotgun sequencing - Wikipedia.

In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing random DNA strands. It is named by analogy with the rapidly expanding, quasi-random shot grouping of a shotgun.. The chain-termination method of DNA sequencing ("Sanger sequencing") can only be used for short DNA strands of 100 to 1000 base pairs.Due to this size limit, longer sequences are subdivided ....


Complementary DNA - Wikipedia.

In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single-stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA or microRNA (miRNA)) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. cDNA is often used to clone eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes.When scientists want to express a specific protein in a cell that does not normally express that protein (i.e., ....


Photovoltaic effect - Wikipedia.

The photovoltaic effect is the generation of voltage and electric current in a material upon exposure to light.It is a physical and chemical phenomenon.. The photovoltaic effect is closely related to the photoelectric effect.For both phenomena, light is absorbed, causing excitation of an electron or other charge carrier to a higher-energy state. The main distinction is that the term ....


Genomic library - Wikipedia.

History. The first DNA-based genome ever fully sequenced was achieved by two-time Nobel Prize winner, Frederick Sanger, in 1977.Sanger and his team of scientists created a library of the bacteriophage, phi X 174, for use in DNA sequencing. The importance of this success contributed to the ever-increasing demand for sequencing genomes to research gene therapy..


Prenatal testing - Wikipedia.

This was done using advanced methods in DNA sequencing resulting in the parallel sequencing of the fetal DNA. The amount of sequence tags mapped to each chromosome was counted. If there was a surplus or deficiency in any of the chromosomes, this meant that there was a fetal aneuploid. Using this method of shotgun sequencing, the successful ....


Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing - Wikipedia.

Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing is a single-molecule sequencing technology that uses transmission electron microscopy techniques. The method was conceived and developed in the 1960s and 70s, but lost favor when the extent of damage to the sample was recognized. In order for DNA to be clearly visualized under an electron microscope, it must be ....


Single-nucleotide polymorphism - Wikipedia.

In genetics, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP / s n I p /; plural SNPs / s n I p s /) is a germline substitution of a single nucleotide at a specific position in the genome.Although certain definitions require the substitution to be present in a sufficiently large fraction of the population (e.g. 1% or more), many publications do not apply such a frequency threshold..


DNA mismatch repair - Wikipedia.

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a system for recognizing and repairing erroneous insertion, deletion, and mis-incorporation of bases that can arise during DNA replication and recombination, as well as repairing some forms of DNA damage. Mismatch repair is strand-specific. During DNA synthesis the newly synthesised (daughter) strand will commonly ....


microRNA - Wikipedia.

A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs function via base-pairing with complementary sequences within mRNA molecules. As a result, these mRNA ....


DNA Sequencing Costs: Data - Genome.gov.

Nov 01, 2021 . To illustrate the nature of the reductions in DNA sequencing costs, each graph also shows hypothetical data reflecting Moore's Law, which describes a long-term trend in the computer hardware industry that involves the doubling of 'compute power' every two years (See: Moore's Law [wikipedia.org]). Technology improvements that 'keep up' with ....


H3K4me3 - Wikipedia.

H3K4me3 is an epigenetic modification to the DNA packaging protein Histone H3 that indicates tri-methylation at the 4th lysine residue of the histone H3 protein and is often involved in the regulation of gene expression. The name denotes the addition of three methyl groups (trimethylation) to the lysine 4 on the histone H3 protein.. H3 is used to package DNA in ....


Deletion (genetics) - Wikipedia.

In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: ?) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is left out during DNA replication. Any number of nucleotides can be deleted, from a single base to an entire piece of chromosome. Some chromosomes have fragile spots where breaks occur which result ....